Basic Turing Miniature Writings on Computing Logic Philosophy Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life as well as Mystery Secrets

Basic Turing Miniature Writings on Computing Logic Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life as well as Mystery Secrets


Basic Turing: Miniature Writings on Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life, as well as Mystery Secrets
Basic Turing: Miniature Writings on Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life, as well as Mystery Secrets


Author(s): Alan M. Turing, B. Jack Copeland
Publisher: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, Year: 2004
ISBN: 9780198250791,9780198250807,9781429421522,0198250797,0198250800

Describe:


Alan Turing was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In 1935, at the age of 22, he developed the mathematical theory upon which all digital computers with subsequent stored programs are designed. 

Upon the outbreak of hostilities with Germany in September 1939, he joined the Goverment Codebbreaking team at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire and played a decisive role in decoding Engima, the symbol used by the German armed forces to protect its radio communications.

 Turing's work on the version of Enigma used by the German Navy was vital to the battle of sovereignty in the North Atlantic. It also contributed to the attack on the zeroes known as "fish", which the German High Command used to encode signals during the latter part of the war. His contribution shortened the war in Europe by an estimated two years. 

After the war, his theoretical work led to the development of Britain's first computers in the National Physical Laboratory and the Royal Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester. Turing was also the founding father of modern cognitive science, assuming that the cortex at birth is a "disorganized machine" which through "training" becomes organized "in a global machine or something like that." He continued developing computers to model biological growth, and launched the discipline now referred to as artificial life.

 The papers in this book are the main works to understand Turing's tremendous contribution in all these areas. The collection includes a wartime treatise on the mystery in Turing; Messages from Turing to Churchill and to code breaks; Lectures, papers and broadcasts that opened the notion of artificial intelligence and its implications; The paper that formed the genesis of the investigation into artificial life.



Contents


Alan Turing 1912–1954 
1Jack Copeland Computable Numbers: A Guide 5

Jack Copeland 1. On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem (1936) 58 

2. On Computable Numbers: Corrections and Critiques 91
 Alan Turing, Emil Post, and Donald W. Davies
 3. Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals (1938 ), including excerpts from Turing’s correspondence, 1936–1938 125

 4. Letters on Logic to Max Newman (c.1940) 205
 Enigma 217
Jack Copeland 

5. History of Hut 8 to December 1941 (1945 ), featuring an excerpt from Turing’s ‘Treatise on the Enigma’ 265

Patrick Mahon 6. Bombe and Spider (1940 ) 313

 7. Letter to Winston Churchill (1941) 336

 8. Memorandum to OP-20-G on Naval Enigma (c.1941) 341

 Artificial Intelligence 353 

Jack Copeland 9. Lecture on the Automatic Computing Engine (1947 ) 362

 10. Intelligent Machinery (1948) 395 

11. Computing Machinery and Intelligence (1950) 433 12. Intelligent Machinery, A Heretical Theory (c.1951) 465

 13. Can Digital Computers Think? (1951) 476 

14. Can Automatic Calculating Machines Be Said to Think? (1952) 487

 Alan Turing, Richard Braithwaite, Geoffrey Jefferson, and Max Newman Artificial Life 507 Jack Copeland 15. The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis (1952) 519 16. Chess (1953) 562

 17. Solvable and Unsolvable Problems (1954) 576

 Index 597



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