Free book Artificial intelligence and literary creativity

Artificial intelligence and literary creativity: inside the mind of BRUTUS, a storytelling machine



Artificial intelligence and literary creativity: inside the mind of BRUTUS, a storytelling machine

Free book Artificial intelligence and literary creativity


Is human creativity a wall that Amnesty International cannot extend in any way? Many people feel comfortable admitting that professionals in many fields can be matched with the help of both knowledge-based or semi-symbolic systems, but even some AI researchers have hope that when it comes to the effects of absolute brilliance, thinking across the desktop is really Unalterable.


In this book, the authors push artificial intelligence at a time when machines can write independently now not only comic tales of the kind considered for years in artificial intelligence, but the brilliant concept of imagination is a boycott of human genius. Reviews over 5 years of committed effort to build story generator - BRUTUS.1 system.


 This book was written once for three typical reasons. The first theoretical motivation to invest time, money and geniuses in the search for a clearly innovative computer is to work to answer a query whether we ourselves are machines or not.


The two-dimensional theoretical reason is the silence of those who accept that they are true with this common sense is constantly closed to the emotional realm of creativity. The rationale for this endeavor, the 1/3 reason, is that machines capable of working side by side with humans in arenas inviting creativity will have countless value.


Contents

Acknowledgments xi
Preface xv
The Marriage of Logic and Creativity xv
Will Robots Soon Be Smarter Than Us? xvi
From Chess to Literary Creativity xviii
How Do You Build an Artificial Author? xxiii
Why Build an Artificial Author? xxvi
On Silicon Wings xxvii
List of Tables xxix
List of Figures xxxii
1
Setting the Stage 1
1.1 The Turing Test Sequence 1
1.2 The Midwife 5
1.3 Philosophy as Engineering 8
1.4 Lovelace's Argument From Creativity 9
1.4.1 Moravec's Response to Lovelace 13
1.5 Is BRUTUS Creative After All? 14
1.5.1 BRUTUS and Bodenesque Creativity 14
1.5.2 BRUTUS and Torrance's Definition of Creativity 19
1.5.3 BRUTUS and Hofstadter's Copycat 22
1.6 Story Generators as Theorem Provers 25
1.7 Why We're Thoroughgoing Logicists 26
1.7.1 A Two-Horse Race? 27
1.7.2 The Music Box and … Tchaikovsky 27
1.7.3 Why COG Is Doomed 28

Page viii

2
Could a Machine Author Use Imagery? 33
2.1 The Imagery Debate's Contestants 35
2.2 The Main Argument Against Computational Imagery 36
2.3 Temporally Extended Mental Images 39
2.3.1 First-Order Logic and Logical Systems 39
2.3.2 OTTER: Test-Bed for Logicist Story Generation 42
2.3.3 Simple Diagrams 45
2.3.3.1 Simple Diagrams in HYPERPROOF 47
2.3.4 So What is a TEMI? 50
2.4 Defending the Key Premise 51
2.5 “Strong” vs. “Weak” Story Generation 63
2.6 So What About BRUTUS 64
3
Consciousness and Creativity 67
3.1 BRUTUS as Zombie 68
3.2 The Conundrum 70
4
Mathematizing Betrayal 81
4.1 First Stabs at a Definition 83
4.2 Betrayal Calls For an Expressive Logic! 85
4.2.1 Dizzyingly Iterated Beliefs in Detective Stories 85
4.2.2 OTTER Cannot Handle Betrayal 87
4.2.3 Cervantes' Don Quijote for Skeptics 90
4.2.4 What Shall We Then Do? 93
4.3 On To More Sophisticated Accounts 94
4.4 A Branch Point 96
4.5 Two Popular Objections 99
4.6 Miles to Go Before We Sleep 100
5
The Narrative-Based Refutation of Church's Thesis 105
5.1 Can Interestingness Be Formalized? 105
5.2 Mendelson on Church's Thesis 106
5.3 Background Material 107
5.4 Refuting Mendelson's Attack 108
5.5 Mendelson's Rebuttal 116
5.6 Attacking Church's Thesis From Narrative 118
5.7 Objections 127
5.7.1 Objection 1 127
5.7.2 Objection 2 128
5.7.3 Objection 3 129

Page ix

5.7.4 Objection 4 131
5.7.5 Objection 5 131
5.8 Arg3 in Context: Other Attacks 133
5.8.1 Kalmár's Argument Against CT 135
5.8.2 Cleland's Doubts About CT 138
5.9 And Interestingness in BRUTUS1? 145
6
Inside the Mind of BRUTUS 149
6.1 Where Are We In History? 149
6.1.1 TALE-SPIN, and Reaction 150
6.1.2. Turner's MINSTREL 151
6.1.3 The Seven “Magic” Desiderata153
6.2 Story Grammars Resurrected 154
6.3 BRUTUS: Evolution of a System Architecture 160
6.3.1 BRUTUS and BRUTUS1 160
6.3.2 Component Configuration 162
6.3.3 Plot Generation 163
6.3.4 Story Structure Expansion 164
6.3.5 BRUTUS: A Composite Architecture 164
6.4 BRUTUS1's Anatomy: An Introduction 165
6.4.1 Introduction to the Knowledge Level 166
6.4.1.1 Domain Knowledge 167
6.4.1.2 Linguistic Knowledge 167
6.4.1.3 Literary Knowledge 168
6.4.1.4 Knowledge Usage in Story Generation 169
6.4.2 Introduction to the Process Level 169
6.4.3 Implementation Structures and Methods 170
6.4.3.1 Frames 171
6.4.3.2 Relations 172
6.4.3.3 Production Rules 173
6.5 The Knowledge Level 174
6.5.1 Domain Knowledge 174
6.5.1.1 Agents and Events 174
6.5.1.2 Beliefs 175
6.5.1.3 Proactive Behavior: Goals, Plans, and Actions 177
6.5.1.4 Reactive Behavior: Production Rules 178
6.5.2 Linguistic Knowledge 180
6.5.3 Literary Knowledge 182
6.5.3.1 Literary Associations 183

Page x

6.5.3.1.1 Iconic Features: Positive and Negative 183
6.5.3.1.2 Literary Modifiers: Positive and Negative 184
6.5.3.1.3 Literary Analogs 185
6.5.3.2 Linking Literary and Linguistic Knowledge 185
6.5.3.3 Imagistic Expertise 186
6.5.3.3.1 The Bizarre 187
6.5.3.3.2 Perception & P-Consciousness 187
6.5.3.3.3 Familiar Reference 188
6.5.3.3.4 Voyeurism 188
6.6 The Process Level 189
6.6.1 Setting the Stage: Thematic Instantiation 189
6.6.2 Developing the Plot Through Simulation 191
6.6.3 Writing the Story: Outline and Language Generation 194
6.6.4 Variations on a Theme 198
6.7 Interestingness: From the Theme Down 198
6.8 Sample Stories 199
6.9 BRUTUS1 on the Web 203
Bibliography 205

Index 226